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The Hittite People
Public vs. Private For the ancient world, the people of Hattusa are perhaps the most forward-thinking. Everyday behaviour and expected etiquette are similar to modern day. They are neither excessively private, nor overtly open. Personal details are known by relatives and close friends and to inquire too deeply into a stranger's life is rude. They have similar boundaries in conversation as the modern western world. Personal Honour A Hittite is more easy-going than his neighbours (such as in Hellas or Assyria) when it comes to honour. Being honourable and retaining integrity in your life and work is important to Hittites but this honour is determined by their own conscience and, at times, the temples; not the judgement of others.

A Hittite will not take offence at a rival spouting dishonour upon his name. The rival might simply look like an angry idiot. But offence would be taken, if that dishonour was attached to an accusation of ineptitude or poor character. The abstract concept of honour means little in Hattusa. But a man or woman's reputation, based on their real skill and efforts, does.

This, in general, extends to familial honour as well as personal. But the people of Hattusa are also aware that an honourable, hard-working and skilled individual can come from dishonourable or unuseful parents. Hattusa is a land in which one can make their own fortune. A heritage poor in substance or wealth is not a shameful thing in Hattusa. For some people, it is a fact of life, and a Hittite is unlikely to be judged by the actions of his forebears, unless he himself begins to show a similarly poor character.

For more information on relatives and how family members are expected to behave, see The Familial Unit section below.
Populace Age The people of Hattusa live healthy lives with a good climate and mostly varied cuisine. They tend to live well and long. Death in one's sixties would not be considered shocking but unfortunate. Living into one's seventies is considered very good and eighties near unheard of. As the empire has spread recently through long war campaigns it is common for many areas to be low in able-bodied young men, the women, children and older generations working and living together. When war is not on-going, the age distribution is fairly even.

For information on ages of maturity, see the Ages of Maturity header in the Life Events and Traditions section below.
Ethnicity The Hattusian empire has expanded hugely in the last few centuries. As such, ethnic diversity is high. Citizens of Hattusa might come from Hurrian, Hatti, Syrian, Luwerian and occasionally Jewish backgrounds. Yet, they are all referred to, now, as Hittites. It is a title that does not remove their ethnic history but brings together multiple lineages under a single political and national banner of unity. A citizen might be a Hurrian within their family, and his neighbour may be a Hatti. But they are both Hittites. Together. In addition to this, a large empire has a large trade economy, bringing foreign merchants by the droves. Many said merchants produce children with Hittite nationals, or settle in the area permanently.

Aesthetically, this produces a wide diversity of physical features in the populace, from black to blonde hair, from dark to light eyes, tanned to olive to pale complexions. The only ethnicity to be rarely seen but not an impossible sight is nubian or South African.

Certain genetic characteristics are more common in particular areas. The capital and central areas of Hattusa are the least diverse, brown hair and eye colour in the majority. Areas like Kizzuwatna and Arzawa have a higher proportion of fair-haired and eyed populaces due to their high coastal trade. Carchemish's citizens, on the border with Assyria, are more Syrian in nature with darker skin tones, black hair and dark eyes.

The exceptions to these general tropes are those of nobility. Along with the practice of marriage across national borders, royalty also possess seraglios, in which exotic or foreign-featured women are prized. Children born to the royal family are, therefore, often more diverse in appearance than those they live amongst.

For examples of appropriate face claims and ethnicities, see the Ethnics and Face Claims header in The People section of Hattusa's Visuals page.
Biological Sex Hattusa is a diverse land of peoples from different origins and histories. They have learned to live together in harmony whilst respecting difference. This is equally so for biological sex and gender roles. Biological sexes are equal but not equitable. In the eyes of the Hittites, women are women and men are men. They are distinctive but hold equal value. Few occupations are exclusive to a certain sex but several are majority heavy. Difference is respected and utilised for the betterment of the land as a whole. Regardless of who performs them any duty, laboured well, is worthy of respect and honour. In a legal sense, women are the responsibility, but not the possessions, of male relatives with several legal rights of her own.

for more information on gender roles, including barred occupations and legal restrictions see the Sex Discrimination header under the Morals and Prejudices section below.

For more information on the Hittite faith, Gods and traditional practices, see Hattusa's Faith page.
Legal Marriage Monogamy is the norm in Hattusa but polygamy is also legal. There is no legal limit on how many wives a man can have. One is the most common, two not uncommon, three is rare and any more than three is nearly unheard of, though not illegal. It is not legal for a woman to marry more than one man. Same-sex marriage is equally illegal. Concubines and seraglios are the norm amongst men of power in the noble and royal classes.

For more information on concubines and seraglios see the Seraglio System section in Hattusa’s Law page.

For more information on acceptable sexual behaviour outside of marriage see the Fidelity and Monogamy header in the Sexual Behaviour section below.

For more information on same-sex relationships, see the Sexuality Discrimination section under Prejudices below.
Having Children Hittites do not chastise or rebuke illegitimacy or out-of-wedlock children in the same way as their neighbours. In general, a woman is believed to have sexual appetites equal to men and this can sometimes produce unplanned offspring. It is a fact of life. However, the legal and practical circumstances of children born to only one parent are not as fortuitous as those born to two which makes illegitimate childbirth something to avoid where possible. Generally, it is believed that the most appropriate course of life is marriage, then children.

For information on illegitimate children see the Illegitimacy header in The Familial Unit section below.

For information on the legal rights of unwed mothers, see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.
Appearance and Fashion
Hygiene The Hittites are a generally hygienic people with a varied seasonal climate due to high altitude. Their summers, however, are a little longer than most and are hot and dry. By the end of a summer day, sweat is an issue.

Washing is practiced most usually in rivers and streams by the lowest of classes, with basins of water fetched from local wells by the working class, in communal bath houses or sweat lodges for the merchants and middle class populace and in private bath houses including heated bathing pools for the very rich.

Post-washing oils are common Hattusa, specifically to keep the skin soft and supple after drying heat or hard labour. Lower classes might use grease or fat from goats milk for their hands and feet. The upper classes can afford oils and butter from nuts and citrus fruit.

Finer oils like frankincense are used for their smell as well as skin-care. These are so exclusive that only the very richest of royals can afford them.

The Hittites consider personal appearance to be important, making hygiene an expected standard. Many Hittites dress to impress, regardless of the occasion and smelling sweet is a large part of putting the right aesthetic foot forward. Concepts of Beauty The Hittite ideal of beauty is as diverse as its people. In general, signs of a luxurious life equate to being beautiful. Rough skin, large muscles / tendons and a stooping back are symptoms of hard-lived labour. This is to be respected but is not considered beautiful. By comparison, clear soft skin, a regal carriage and shining hair is considered a mark of beauty in both biological sexes.

For women, supple or succulent curvature is most preferred, with wider hips for child-bearing an added bonus. For men, a lean figure, good height and elegant carriage is equally prized. A man with too much muscle is considered barbarous in appearance. Clothing For the lower classes of Hattusa, clothing is generally simple and practical, woven from linen and durable through seasonal climates. This is usually cut into the shape of a short tunic and cinched at the waist with a fabric belt. Rope sandals are more common than leather.

Read more on how cloth is made in Hattusa under the Fabrics and Weaving header in the Domestic Goods section of Hattusa's Science page.

For more information on leather and its limited availability in Hattusa see the Leatherwork header in the Domestic Goods section of Hattusa's Science page.

Upper class fashion and clothing is far more varied. Rarely traditional and open to much invention there are often new garments and designs that have no specific name or 'type'. In general, both genders will wear long robes or skirts of some kind with additional decoration of cloaks or belts. Both sexes are equally swathed in jewellery of gold and bronze (never silver).

Generally, nudity is not permitted in polite company in Hattusa but the higher up the social circle one gets the more revealing clothes will become for women. In Hittite culture, a woman's beauty is often linked to her power and her intelligence; and therefore her worth. This is particularly true for concubines and wives of male royals, as it is that woman's beauty that has captured and held their man's attention. Instead of that beauty being treated as a hidden, private possession of their royal man, however, it is shown off. Royal wives and concubines are often the most evocatively dressed in Hittite society, their bodies shown off as the coveted possession of their men. This style of dress at once highlights a woman's own power and sway over their male counterparts as well as the power that male has, to claim that woman's beauty for his own: it is a mutual display of power. For these women, the closest one can get to nudity, the better, but no actual nudity (nipples and genitalia) should ever be revealed publicly. To do so would be disgraceful and embarrassing.

For men, clothing becomes more lavish as one becomes more powerful and ages. Older men of authority will often wear more layers of patterned cloth, more jewellery and wear their crests or crowns more often. As the worth of a male of nobility comes from his physical prowess, often in battle, a weakening body is compensated with copious jewellery and other displays of power. The monarch in particular will also be dressed in finer garments and be less likely caught in 'casual' clothing, as the Tabarna is considered a symbol of his country's power. He must, therefore, always be dressed the part. Similar rules apply to the Tawananna.

For more information on the regal ranks and positions, see the Ranks and Hierarchy section of Hattusa's Law page.

AnachronismHistorically, few details are known of the Hattusa empire. This includes the names of particular garments. All archaeologists have to go on are the relief carvings in walls and the occasional references made in almost entirely lost writings. The below has been pieced together and then embroidered by Aeipathy staff using those reliefs and popular fiction representations of the Hittite culture, as well as some careful terminology choices, translating key words into Turkish and/or ancient Hittite.

Flat Tunic
When worn, tunics appear as a short dress, belted at the waist. The skirt of a tunic falls to a few inches above the knee. A flat tunic is cut as a single sheet of fabric, as wide as the wearer's shoulders and as long as their shoulder-to-knee twice over. In its centre is a head hole. Once placed over the head, the fabric falls like two rectangles down front and back. A belt fastened around the middle brings them together, creates lots of air beneath the arms and slits up both thighs. Flat tunics are the easiest and cheapest garment to make in Hattusa which means its most commonly worn by the lowest classes. However, when made in silk or given additional detail, it can also be the base layer of an outfit for the upper classes. These tunics are worn by men and children of both sexes but rarely women.
Cross Tunic
A cross tunic looks almost the same as a flat tunic once on, but the fabric is cut very differently. When worn, a cross tunic still appears as a short dress, cutting off above the knee. The fabric is as wide as the wearer shoulder-to-knee once over and must have lips of fabric sewn at one side to form shoulders. There are two holes for arms. A wearer places their arms into the holes, pulls the lips up and over their shoulders like a jacket and then crosses the ends of the fabric over their front. The ends of the fabric are cut at angles so that they hang straight at the front. The garment is belted into place. This design creates a deep v-neck in the front of the tunic and is harder to manufacture. It is still cheap enough to be worn by the lower classes but not those of poverty. The flat tunic is more accessible and easier to wear. The cross tunic is worn by men and children of both sexes but rarely women.
Tailed Tunic
A tailed tunic can be cut as either of the above two designs (flat or cross) but hangs differently at the hem - longer in the back than the front. This makes it look more like a modern-day shirt dress. Again, worn by men and children of both sexes, and all classes, this design gives an illusion of more modest length so is also often worn by women who need their lower legs free (such as grape pressers who use their feet in their work).
A termaz is a tunic that falls to the feet and is worn only by grown men. In its upper half it can be cut like a flat tunic (straight across the shoulders) or a cross tunic (with a v-neck). If it falls to the feet it is still classified as a termaz. Like all other tunics the termaz is sleeveless. This is often the most basic and common garment worn by adult men in Hattusa, of all classes. The quality of fabric, pattern, hemming and additional decoration will differ between classes but, in general, most men will wear some form of termaz unless it impedes their work and a tunic suits better.
A tarpāla is like a termaz but has sleeves. This involves more sewing and construction on the maker's part and is a more expensive garment. It is usually only worn by the upper classes and only in the winter, as Hattusa is warm enough for sleeveless most of the rest of the year. For the lower classes, cloaks and other additions are worn in the colder seasons. A tarpāla is a sign of wealth and is often made from heavy fabric. It might be worn with the sleeves rolled to the elbow or hanging wide to the wrists. It can be worn as a cross-tunic, sealed down the front in a single panel, or fastened like a jacket similar to a cross tunic. It can be worn as the main garment over only skin or it can be worn as an additional layer over a termaz. Again, like a termaz, a tarpāla is only worn by men.
Men can wear termaz or tarpālas but can also dress with a naked chest. If they are not wearing anything from the waist up, their lower half will only be donned to mid-thigh, like with a tunic. Never a full length skirt. This would be considered odd-looking. The shorter 'kilt-like' skirts worn by men are called kaunake. They hang to a few inches above the knee and may be pleated or straight. They are usually adorned with a fabric belt around the top hem, the ends of which will trail down their centre to the same length as the garment itself.
Whilst a grown man will wear a termaz or a tarpāla, women wear adupli. This term can be applied to any kind of dress. As mentioned above, Hittite fashion is diverse and ever changing. An adupli can be sleeved or sleeveless, fastened at the sides, the front or the back. It can form a whole skirt to the feet, pleated or straight. It can have slit up to the thigh on either side or not. There is no rule on how a dress or gown is made. To that end, an adupli can also be a top and skirt combination, with the midrif on show. Adupli simply means a 'female outfit' or 'dress'.
A kusisi is a cloak or cape. Usually a vast expanse of fabric, a kusisi can be worn in any number of ways. The wearer can wrap about their shoulders, allowing the ends to hang down the back or over one shoulder, they can hang it over one shoulder and fasten it into their belt front and back. They can wear it like a shawl over both shoulders with ends fastened together at the front. It is always worn as an additional layer and can be worn by men or women, though women will generally only wear a kusisi as a form of outerwear; never indoors. Men can wear a kusis indoors as a natural part of their raiment.
The one thing almost every male and female outfit has in common is an accentuation of the waist. This can be from skirts that bare the navel or belts that cinch in the fabric. Even outfits that leave the chest or waist bare will often have a belt around the top of the skirt or kaunake. In Hattusa a 'belt' rarely refers to leather or hide. Instead, it is usually a strip of fabric. This fabric is often a different colour or pattern to the rest of the garments worn, to turn it into an accessory. It might also have zincir attached (dangling gold or bronze pieces / decorations). These are worn by both sexes.
Leather is rare in Hattusa but where it can be found most often is in fastenings and ties of upper class clothing. It might be used to tie back the hair of upper class servants. It might be used to wrap around the cloth of high boots to keep the hide tight to the calf. Any leather ties or thongs used in these manners are referred to as ishiyant. Ishiyant can also be made of rope or string. Accessories Hittite men and women (especially of upper classes) are equally adorned when dressed to impress. Men wear earrings, headbands, scarfs, bracelets, anklets and all manner of other jewellery. Just like women. The styles are different between men and women but the amount of gold and fancy fabric worn by either sex is the same. In this sense, men appear far more decorative and 'feminine' than in a lot of other cultures.

A large piece of fabric woven like a headscarf or turban. It is worn by women or eunuch men.
The only sort of fabric a man might wear on his head is a strip of fabric worn like a band around his head at forehead level and tied at the back or side of his head. This form of scarf is rarely worn by women.
A headband around the forehead level made of metal or leather is called a hant'halka. It can be made of gold, bronze, leather or hide and decorated with scrollwork or jewels. It can be worn by men or women.
Zincir, as a term, can be applied by any chain or dangling ornament from clothing but when used in context with a hant'halka it refers to two lengths of leather, hide or chain that hang from the headband at the temples. These are worn only by men and usually in battle. They are attached to a hant'halka partially for battle plumage but are also a particular help to archers who can use them to feel the direction and strength of the wind.
Made of similar materials as a hant'halka or fabric stiffened with heavy embroidery, a harsar-halka is worn over the top of the head like a flat tiara. It is worn only by women, not men, and can be worn in addition to a hant'halka.
Slides with beads, shells or flattened coins of gold and silver are often slid into decorative hair designs. This is a solely female decoration.
Veils are not worn at weddings. Instead, long and sheer lengths of fabric will often hang from the back of a woman's hairpiece. This could be from the top of a crest or conical hat, it might be from beneath a knot / design of hair. The veil can be of any length from waist to feet and is not a symbol of marriage or marital state at all: it's simply an accessory.
Dangling and extravagant earrings are common, if not a permanent addition to anyone of wealth; men and women both. It is not at all unusually to see a man wearing decorative earrings.
Necklaces are a hugely popular adornment in Hattusa. Both women and men will wear them in excess. They will usually wear more than one and use them to decorate the expanse of their collarbones. These necklaces might be decorative plates, similar to the style of K'm't), chains with pendants or strings of beads. They will often be threaded on wire, not string, so that the shape of the necklace can remain rounded, following the line of the collarbone and shoulders, instead of hanging narrow at the center with its own weight.
In Hattusa a 'belt' rarely refers to leather or hide. Instead, it is usually a strip of fabric. This fabric is often a different colour or pattern to the rest of the garments worn, to turn it into an accessory. It might also have zincir attached (dangling gold or bronze pieces / decorations). These are worn by both sexes.
Bracelets are often chains of gold or bronze, sometimes with additional pendants, charms or precious stones. They can also be beaded. Lower classes might wear bracelets with wooden beads. Bracelets are worn by both sexes.
Exactly the same as bracelets but worn around the ankle. Again, these are worn by both sexes.
Unlike bracelets and anklets, which are loose and fluid over the skin, bangles and bands are fixed in shape. They are usually an incomplete circle that can be bent, fitted over the limb and then squeezed back into shape (as gold and bronze are both soft materials). They will often be etched, carved or gilded and might have gemstones fitted into the metal. They are never made of silver. Halka can be worn around the upper or lower arms, the neck or the ankles but both sexes. Women and children (young boys included) will also wear them fitted around the thigh.
Like with most jewellery, rings are worn by both sexes and there is no limit to how many can be worn on each hand. There is no marital 'ring' in Hittite culture so rings can be worn on any finger without it implying marital status. Most letters are sealed with a crest, imprinted by a ring, so many men will wear their crest ring as common jewellery just for ease.
Supreme Crest / Royal Crest / Tawananna Crown
Royal 'crown's in Hattusa are short, cone-shaped caps (like a tapered fez). These share the same shape but are always crafted uniquely for each new Tabarna, Queen and Tawananna. Ceremoniously, a new crest is often made for a Queen if she later becomes the Tawananna and vice versa. The Tabarna (who wears the Supreme Crest), Tawananna (who wears the Tawananna Crown), Queen, Crown Prince, Immediate Legitimate Princes and heads of the royal Houses (all of whom wear Royal Crests) all have a crest of some kind but they are rarely worn. They are most commonly donned for the rare imperial events such as coronations or royal weddings.
Fibulae, like their Hellenes counterpart, are pieces of gold or bronze that are used to affix clothing. They are not commonly used as most Hittite clothing is deliberately worn with the impression of loose flexibility. But they might be used to fasten cloaks when riding into battle or for other practical purposes.
Zincir is the general term for any piece of decoration: jewel, gold, bronze etc. attached to clothing. These might hang from the hem of clothing, from belts, around the straps of sandals etc. Any piece of jewellery like this, used to enhance something else, is referred to as a zincir. Footwear Sandals are the most common footwear in Hattusa, worn during the summer, fall and spring months. Only in winter, when the altitude of the land forces snow upon the people are feet covered in a soft sort of boot fashioned from animal skin or down.

Sandals are the most common form of footwear in Hattusa. For the upper classes, these might be made of leather. For the lower, they are more commonly woven from rope and called Ishimana.
In cold weather, boots can be worn in Hattusa, known as sarkuwant. These are rarely made from leather and more likely to be fastened from thick layers of cloth or hide. They are bulky and have little shape, with a rope or leather sole. They are more-or-less shapeless booties that are then fastened into place with strings of leather or rope. As these take more preparation to make, as well as access to hide, they are more commonly worn by the upper classes. The lower classes may be lucky enough to have one pair of sarkuwant for cold weather but, more commonly, they will simply fasten a length of fabric around their sandals to keep their toes warm in colder weather. Military Equipment
For military armour, weaponry and equipment, see the Weapons and Equipment section in Hattusa's Military page.
Beauty and the Divine Unlike the Hellenes, there is no divine connection to beauty. Whether one is beautiful or not is seen simply as the luck of the draw in Hattusa. As Hittites are conscientious of their appearance, however, a man or woman who is good-looking and does not 'make the most of it' with good personal care and fine clothes may be judged for wasting the luck they've been born with.

Whilst there is no connection between beauty and the divine, beauty can be mistakenly associated with intelligence and (more often) with power. Particularly in women of the upper classes who can use that beauty to become powerful wives and concubines of authoritative men.
Inside the Home
For ideas on what a home might be built from and with what resources, see the Architecture section in Hattusa’s Social page. For more detailed information on residential designs keep reading below…
Lower class Homes A lower class home in Hattusa is usually built from stone or clay, depending on local resources and will often consist of three rooms, all on the ground floor. Larger cities may have one home atop another, with stone or wooden steps for access, but the homes themselves are not usually more than a storey high. Its three rooms consist of: a large, living space for the family and subsidiary spaces for bathing and food storage.

In the living space, nicer homes will have a bedding platform for sleeping. The most basic of residences use free-standing cots made of wooden posts and rope mesh. For those with platforms, the living space is carved from the land itself, a step down from street level. This provides the step up for a stone platform on which skins and blankets form a large and warm bed. This keeps the sleeper safe from vermin in the night.

Still within the main chamber, a separate area, marked with rugs and cushions will be used for dining. As the Hittites sit on the floor when eating, there are no tables and chairs. A few smaller, multi-purpose tables (which can be used as stools, steps or otherwise) are used to support trays of food from which the family can dine at meal times.

The two other chambers in the house will be very small, more like walk-in storage spaces than actual rooms. Neither is likely to have a door, but a carved archway to connect the spaces. One will be used to store food and is likely to have an open hatch leading outside where a fire can be set and the smoke guided outside. Food can be prepared here, inside the home, or from spit fires outside. The third space is usually for storage of clothing and possessions, but also a basin for washing and a wooden bucket or wide ceramic pot in place of a latrine. More expensive homes (such as the ones with bedding platforms) may have also had a stone shelf carved into place in this side room, with a hole leading outside, to serve as a more impressive toilet. Noble and Upper class Homes Larger, grander homes in Hattusa are built on multiple levels or are one level with significantly higher ceilings. To protect them from flooding or vermin, the first few feet of the ground floor are constructed from stone and pete. Walls and floors above this are wooden hatching coated in clay and then lime wash. This gives them a whiter, brighter look than poorer homes. The clay is also mouldable, so designs and architectural patterns can be made, giving each home a more unique appearance.

These larger homes can have as many rooms as the owner desires or can afford, including private sleeping quarters, kitchens and bathrooms. The truly wealthy might have a private bathing chamber with a pool carved into the ground. Those who own servants may have sleeping quarters for them. Those who own slaves will certainly have sleeping spaces provided.

Outside, a more lavish home might have a courtyard in which rugs can be beaten and cleaned, clothing can be left to dry in the sun and flowers or flora can be grown in pots. There are few areas of Hattusa where the ground is wet and soil fertile enough to grow such plants directly in the earth so pots, barrels and troughs of good, finer soil and silt are used to add colour to an otherwise hard and stoney garden. Reflecting pools, with lily pads and waterlife are exceptionally popular in Hattusa, so very rich homes might have a small pool installed. Even larger residences will be built around these pools, the courtyard at their center with wings of the house along the back and each side. Visitors will enter through a gate and have to step around the pool in order to reach the main doors of the house at its rear.

The homes of the rich and upper class will not have seraglios as part of their household. These buildings, and the women they contain, are exclusive to the royal elites. But a wealthy man with more than one wife is likely to have separate 'wings', rooms or spaces for each spouse.

Areas of rich Hittite households include everything one might need for a personal lifestyle, meaning that the man of the house, each of his wives and even perhaps the chief steward of his household will have a sleeping space, a chamber in which to receive guests, a dining room and a storage space. All to themselves. In large estates such as these, only the kitchens and bathing rooms are communal. If a husband wishes to visit his first wife, he will attend to her in her reception room. The reverse is true if it is the wife seeking her husband's company. Royal Palaces Each male member of the royal family is given their own estate when they come of age. These palaces range in size and significance, depending on the legitimacy and position of its owner. Illegitimate princes or those of non-direct royal blood will likely have similar estates to those described above in 'Noble and Upper class Homes'. For those in direct line for the throne, estates are vast and include numerous buildings, some separate, others joined by columned strips of hallway. As a royal estate is afforded more space than noble homes, each building is usually only on the ground floor but twice the usual height, giving rooms a vast, light and airy feel. The only exception to this rule is the palace of the Tabarna (king) which is excessive in all ways, with multiple storeys, buildings, walkways, vast courtyards and built on a large enough scale that it is essentially its own small town.

Grand, royal estates for those who are not yet the Tabarna will consist of at least four buildings: the living quarters of the royal himself, his seraglio, quarters for servants and slaves and a personal temple. The grounds of the estate will usually include a well, stables and several gardens and pools, designed to have the entire estate feel like one space, despite it consisting of several separate buildings.

The Main Building
The main structure, in which the prince or royal lives will include: a bed chamber, storage rooms for his garments and personal belongings, several reception rooms including a more private chamber for formal / legal meetings, sleeping quarters for his personal attendants, a bathhouse, a reflection room for prayers and honouring dead loved ones, several courtyards and solar rooms and a guest wing (including sleeping quarters, storage space, an attendants room and reception room) for important visitors.
The Seraglio
The seraglio is usually a less grand structure in design and detail but several times larger than the main building because it's required to hold a significantly larger number of people. It is unusual for royals to keep seraglios with less than several dozen women and far from unusual for the number to be over a hundred. Add to this each concubine's personal attendants (anything from 1-6 servants is usual) and the seraglio becomes a small town, in and of itself with hundreds of chambers built around pretty vista corridors, open courtyards and solar rooms draped in tapestries and silks.

Whilst Hittite seraglios are not cloistered and women can come and do as they please, a prince is more likely to visit with his concubines in the seraglio than his formal chambers in the main building. A secondary home of sorts, for the prince, is therefore located in the seraglio - usually in the corner closest to the main building. This wing will include a sleeping chamber and large reception room. Concubines are permitted to visit these rooms whenever and however they like, unlike the main building where the royals' sleeping chambers and private space are forbidden to all without permission.

Beside the royal's personal chambers are that of his legal wife. These chambers will remain ceremonially empty if he is unmarried. These are the largest suites of the seraglio and include a sleeping chamber, several reception rooms, space for the wife's personal attendants and storage for her things. It will usually have a private courtyard and may even include a private bathing pool.

Other concubines are provided with rooms fitting their station within the seraglio. Women who are favoured by the prince / royal are assigned the larger chambers with the nicer views. Several of which are likely to have both sleeping and reception spaces and attendant rooms. Smaller chambers will have just the single room used for both sleeping and receiving and the servants assigned to that concubine will sleep in communal quarters for staff. Concubines will occasionally be relocated by the chief of staff, depending on their changing favour in the eyes of the prince / royal.

Quarters for servants are usually communal spaces with rows of beds provided. Seraglios do not have male attendants but may have male kitchen servants or slaves. Only attendants sleep in the seraglio, all others are required to leave at the end of a working day and sleep in the main servants' building. If a concubine has three or more chambermaids, she will also have a chief / head chamber maid. This usually means the concubine is of a high enough station to have a suite that includes attendant rooms but on the rare occasion this is not the case, head chambermaids may be given their own small room in the servants quarters.

A seraglio is managed by a chief of staff who is usually male. It is his role to ensure that all matters involving the seraglio - cleaning, finances, supplies etc. - are handled smoothly. He will therefore spend most of his working day in the seraglio. He does not, however, sleep there. Depending on his import in the eyes of the royal he serves, his sleeping quarters will be in the main building or in the general servants building.
The Servants' Building
The servants building of a royal estate will be basic, functional and again quite large. It includes communal sleeping spaces for servants and slaves, a few private chambers for servants of higher rank and authority, wash rooms for the workers and a vast set of kitchens that supply food for all buildings on the estate. This building is also likely to be near the stables.
The Estate Temple
Many of the largest royal estates will have a private temple. This is open for use by anyone living on the estate - royal, servant or slave - and functions the same as any other place of worship in Hattusa. It is usually staffed by a priest and several servants. It will also include their personal living spaces.

For more information on uses for a temple like this, see the Temple Practice section in Hattusa's Faith page.
Food and Cuisine
Hattusa is home to many different cultural lineages which makes their dishes and cuisine highly varied and location-specific. However, with such a large empire and long travel times from other lands, most meals are prepared with the same core, local ingredients. The Hittite diet consists of dairy products, meat, vegetables, nuts and fruits. Cuisine With limited bovine animals, milk in Hattusa is more commonly from goats. It's the usual drink for the young and for the labourer or to accompany spicier dishes from the eastern region of the empire. Drinkable water is a privilege of only the upper classes and wine or grape juice the most consumed beverage across the empire. Other fruit juices are rare, oranges and citrus plants more usually eaten whole or sliced and served in brewed teas.

As Hittites do not domesticate animals for meat, the middle classes are more vegetarian in their diets, saving meat for special occasions. The lower classes, who hunt for their own food, and royalty, who can afford servants to do it for them, enjoy hunted meat more regularly. Deer, boar, wild goat and rabbit are the most common. Birdlife is also a common serving, from larks, swifts and gulls to the occasional eagle or hawk. It is sacrilege to hunt falcons. As delicacies, snakes and lizard meat are occasionally served. Fish, including shellfish and eel, is common in coastal areas but rare in the capital and enjoyed only by the upper classes who can afford its salting and speedy delivery from the coast.

Bread is the most popular form of food in Hattusa and it is regularly jested that you know where you are in the empire based on how they prepare their bread. Herbed, honeyed, flatbreads, thick fluffy loaves, small pita-like biscuits... the list is never ending and every town or village has their own staple baking recipes. Bread is served at every meal, usually in the form of a side dish, with slices or small baked pieces as an accompaniment to roasted meats and vegetables.

Due to heavy heat in the summer, torrential rains in autumn and the snows of winter, crop growth is lush in Hattusa but at constant risk of weather turning too extreme for the flora to cope. Vines are the most commonly farmed crop making grapes, beans, peas and certain fruits the staple of most diets. Root vegetables such as carrots and potatoes are also grown but only in select locations where the soil is most likely to yield a healthy crop making it a rarer sight on one's plate.

Hattusa is home to many natural herbs, nuts, honeys and oils but they grow limited spices, making Hittite cuisine highly seasoned and very tasty but rarely hot.

For further ideas on the natural resources of the empire, see the Flora and Fauna section in Hattusa’s Land page.

For a full breakdown of ingredients and foodstuffs and how they are used for cooking and / or medicine, see our Flora and Fauna database.
Meal Times Hittite cuisine is consumed sitting on the floor or lying upon chaise chairs. Meals are prepared like tapas, with multiple dishes of different fruits, vegetables, meats and breads, and served on small tables amongst a group of diners. The rich will also have servants to dispense the dishes, moving them around the group to ensure that everyone is able to reach whichever morsel they desire. Lower class families will dine with the dishes at their center, within reach of everyone. Food is often served either as loose bite-sized pieces, able to be picked up with one's fingers, or skewered on metal sticks with small wooden handles. There is no cutlery. Local Dishes Honey bread
A type of dry flatbread, flavoured with local honey to make it sweet. Usually served in small, round baked pieces like biscuits.
A sort of date, found in China, that can be eaten raw or dried. Raw, they have a bitter taste to them. Dried jujubes are incredibly sweet and a popular snack amongst the upper classes. The fruit is rare because it comes from the north easterly corner of the empire, where traders deal with asian merchants.
Shish kebabs
Bite-sized pieces of meat and vegetables, threaded onto metal sticks. This can be cooked by hand around a fire or baked separately and then skewered for serving.

Please NoteThis section of our Encyclopaedia is underdeveloped. If you have some ideas for meals Hittite characters might enjoy or have included descriptions of dishes in your posts, please contact a member of our Staff Team so that we can add your creations to this list.
The Familial Unit
Family Relations The Hittite mentality on family is very similar to the modern-day. Immediate family members are incredibly close, whilst extended family is held with affection but less interwoven into their everyday lives. It is generally expected that parents will care for their children until those children marry, move to a separate home and start a family of their own. Women usually move into their husband's home / family when they marry but she will also retain her kinship with her birth family. The husband is expected to get on with them likewise.

In the lowest classes, when adult children marry, they will either find a home of their own or, if they cannot afford one, live with the husband's parents. For the middle and trading classes of the peerage, when adult sons marry, they usually build a home on their father's land. They continue to work within the family trade and will usually pay their father rent money. When the father grows older, the son takes over his duties and the situation is reversed. The rent is no longer required, the son inherits the wealth and his parents become the dependents. This may involve the two generations living together in one of the homes, the son's wife caring for her in-laws as she would her children. For the upper classes, women always move in with their new husband who will usually have an estate of his own already (a staple for royals and powerful nobles who have reached the age of maturity). Royal estates are always built with the intention of the prince or nobleman having a family in the future so there is rarely any need to move to larger quarters after marriage.

For ages of maturity, see the Ages of Maturity header in the Life Events and Traditions section below.

It is generally expected that whilst young children are cared for by older generations, the elderly are later looked after by their descendants. The aim of a good life is to ensure that all of your relatives are comfortable and content. This includes extended family. If an extended family member is struggling or requires support / aid, it is considered dishonourable not to allow them into your home and care for them as if they are, from that point on, immediate family. Marriage and Adultery As both polygamy and monogamy are legal in Hattusa and the upper classes have a seraglio and concubine system within their households, marriage and adultery is a complex issue. Use the links below to read up on different elements of marital life.

For information on the legalities of marriage see the Legal Marriage header in The Hittite People section above.

For information on the marriage ceremony see the Getting Married header in the Life Events and Traditions section below.

For information on adultery and acceptable sexual behaviour outside of marriage see the Fidelity and Monogamy header in the Sexual Behaviour section below.

For information on concubines and seraglios see The Seraglio System section in Hattusa’s Law page.

For information on same-sex relationships, see the Sexuality Discrimination section under Prejudices below.
Illegitimacy As sex is considered to be a natural instinct for both men and women, chastity before marriage is neither imposed nor expected in Hattusa. This means that illegitimate children, or children born out of wedlock, are entirely possible.

Illegitimate children, born outside of one of their parent's marriages, are not looked upon with negative feelings such as disgust or disgrace. Instead, they simply evoke the same diverse feelings one might receive in a conservative modern-day setting. Awkwardness, uncertainty and perhaps a little pity that they have a difficult parental situation.

If a woman can prove, to the satisfaction of a priest, that a man is the father of her child, he is required to pay a legal stipend for the care of that child.

For more information on the legal rights of illegitimate children, see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa’s Law page.

A woman is not required to marry an unmarried man who impregnates her though it is common practice. This is less to do with her reputation or her sexual conduct and more for practical purposes. A woman who has a child is more expensive to keep in comfort as a wife (the legal duty of a husband) and few men enjoy the idea or expense of raising another man's child; the mother is therefore less likely to receive marital proposals in the future, so is more likely to accept marriage with the father of her child, else risk a lack of male caretaker later in life, after the death of her father.

For information on wills and inheritance, see the Inheriting Wealth header in the Land and Titles section of Hattusa's Law page.

For information on contraception and abortive measures see the Homoeopathy header in the Medicine section of Hattusa’s Science page.
Family Economics For upper class families, who work in managerial roles over the common peerage, men are the only sex to actively work day to day. Women are often expected to keep up with social etiquette, Court appearances, supportive work in temples etc. but these are not usually formal arrangements, merely an expected social responsibility.

Some families in Hattusa's lower classes don't engage in the economics of the day. Rather than working in a particular trade, they'll live more sustainably. They'll weave their own clothes, grow their own food and generally have little need to sell or purchase at local markets. As long as enough family members remain within the familial unit to sustain it, other family members may go elsewhere to learn a trade or 'improve their lot'.

Lower class families in Hattusa who work a particular trade usually train their children and encourage the business to pass down the generations. This is not necessarily a point of pride for the parents or forced indoctrination for the children. It is a practical application of reason: if a couple have worked for years to perfect a skill and can train their children in a way that sees them immediately better than others their age, why wouldn't they? Why would they not give their children that advantage in life? This being said, Hattusa is a land in which ambition and social growth is not only encouraged but truly possible. So, if the children of vocational households are offered the chance to earn better money or train with a better tutor elsewhere, parents will often be encouraging by this exciting venture. There is less doubt and ignorance in Hattusa than other lands, when it comes to trying new things and evolving from generation to generation.

Regardless of class, the patriarch of a family is the one to manage the money within a household. They will usually appoint their wife an allowance with which to run the house. They will also usually give a sum to each adult child (boys and girls) still living with them; effectively, as a wage for the work they dedicate to the family's survival. This economic structure persists in upper class circles, the allowances are simply much larger and less work (but greater social pressures) are expected in return. Domestic Chores The upper classes will usually have paid servants and own slaves to complete their household duties. This would include cleaning and tidying the chambers, supplying cooked meals and raw snacks from the kitchens, always having a vase of wine available to the patriarch of the household, lighting oil burners and incense, beating the rugs and fabrics, changing bed sheets, sewing and mending clothing, and seeing to the security of their employers or masters' possessions. In short, it is their duty to make sure the estates of their employers / masters are always comfortable and equipped to the exact preferences of their owner / employer.

For lower classes, similar tasks are required to care for the cleanliness of the home, the preparation of food and the clothing worn by the occupants but there are also additional chores to be carried out depending on the occupations of the family members. If the family works in the ceramics trade, for example, clay will need to be treated and prepared, pots thrown and formed, a kiln tended to, which then requires firewood to fuel it. Not to mention taking the pots to the market, trading them and resupplying with fresh clay. Then there's the clean up, and the transition of the household from a place of production to a place of food and rest. Different members of the family might take on different tasks and specialties. Which might then cause an issue if one is ill or passes away.

When creating your character, consider what profession a family might specialise in or if they live more sustainably, growing their own food, making their own clothes and not participating so deeply in the economics of their area. Seasonal Lives As the wealthy can afford to change their suppliers throughout the seasons, pay for shipments from other lands with different climates and can build the storage necessary to keep goods and resources healthier long-term, the seasons rarely impact on their household lives. They will, however, be very aware of the seasons when it comes to trade, what is available to them close to home and how taxations from their peerage and vassals alter throughout the year. As it is usually the upper classes who are charged with managing festivals and divine ceremonies, they will also be busy organising different events at different times of year.

For information on annual festivals around Hattusa, see the Annual Festivals header in the Life Events and Traditions section below.

Most other households in Hattusa work either in specialised fields (such as weaving fabric or throwing clay pots) which gains them income to purchase other necessary resources or they manage the entirety of their needs themselves, such as growing food on their own lands and making their own clothes. Both methods of living are heavily reliant on the seasons. Different seasons can impact a family's personally grown resources or the materials they use within their specialised industry. This means that the work and economics within a family unit are likely to change throughout the year. Some seasons might be focused on early production, others on harvest. Some might diversify to an entirely different trade during a season where their regular work is impossible. Consider these alterations when creating a character and how their skill set and behaviour may change depending on the month you are roleplaying in.

For information on the climate and different seasons in Hattusa see the Climate header in the Physical Geography section in Hattusa's Land page.

For months of the year, see the Calendar header in the Language and Communication section of Hattusa's Science page.
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Life Events and Traditions
Childbirth Hittite medicine is some of the most advanced in the known world, second only to the remedies of K'm't. Even so, high infant mortality and the risk of the death of labouring mothers is the reality of this historical epoch. In these instances most turn to the Gods over science, to aid their female relatives in delivery.

Hittites believe that the spinner Fates do not involve themselves with the mortal lives they weave. So, there is little point in making offerings or intense prayers for particular events in life. The single exception to this rule is in the delivery of new children. Offerings of fresh fruit and silver are tradition before the birth of a child in the hopes that the sisters will work together to both ensure the birth of the child and prevent the death of the mother.

Alongside this fear, is an additional risk of children dying before the age of four (after which it is widely believed that a child will survive into adulthood). It is therefore very common that families attempt to have many children, despite the risks of labour, thereby providing the highest chance of multiple heirs, workers for their homestead and children to love.

After a successful and healthy birth, it is tradition to decorate one's home with garlands of flowers and to place a statuette of the mother goddess Hannahanna beside the child's crib until their first birthday. Growing Up As Hittite children grow, they are expected to take on duties connected to their family (whether royal or peasantry) as soon as they are physically and mentally capable. These tasks are often simple and limited in number, allowing a certain amount of play in a child's daily life.

Children are generally expected to live with their parents until they marry. The only exception to this rule is that of royal male children, who are given their own estates when they reach the age of maturity.

For ages of maturity, see the Ages of Maturity header below.

The Mēwashantaš is a child's fourth birthday. Whilst birthdays are marked in small ways each year, a child’s fourth birthday is a much larger affair. Visits are made to local temples to give thanks, Statues of Hannahanna are placed outside homes and on window lintels and neighbours in the same town or street come together to eat a large meal together. It is tradition for the four-year-old to sit on a raised chair, stool or short table whilst others sit on the floor as normal. For the entire day, the four-year-old child should also wear leather ties crisscrossed around their arms from wrist to shoulder. These laces represent the threads of the spinners, who have allowed the child to live this long already. The leather ties are fastened before sunrise and it is considered a mark of misfortune or a curse if the ties are broken or unravel before the sun sets. Ages of Maturity MalesA male is considered an adult at the age of fourteen.
FemalesA female is considered an adult at the age of seventeen if unmarried. If married already, a female is considered an adult when she reaches the age of consent.

For ages of consent, see the Ages of Consent header in the Sexual Behaviour section below.

The Armizzihantaš is a coming of age ceremony celebrated on the birthday upon which a child reaches the age of maturity. Most birthdays are marked in a small manner each yeah but, like the Mēwashantaš, the Armizzihantaš is considered particularly special. The young man or woman to come of age is dressed in finery and given a garland of flowers to wear upon their head. Feasts are held with neighbours and there is a presentation of the one who is now an adult. For girls, every eligible young man attending the festivities must present the new woman with a piece of fruit, symbolising how she has now blossomed into adulthood. Pomegranates are considered particularly lucky as they can be rare at certain times of year and are the favourites of the spinner goddesses. For young men, all eligible women in attendance must grace them with a kiss on the cheek. After the presentations, there is much dancing and music. Whenever the new man or woman dances with a member of the opposite sex, one of each of their wrists are loosely bound together, with ties or scarfs or whatever is handy. At the end of the dance, they are released from each other. These continuous bindings with different dance partners are symbolic of the spinners’ threads and of the potential paths before the new adult. If the binds fall off or break during a dance, any marriage between those two dancers is to be avoided as bound for misfortune. It is custom for the dancing, drinking and merriment to continue into the night. Betrothals Betrothals are arranged between the potential husband, or the potential husband’s family and the potential wife’s female guardian (usually her father). It is expected that the husband’s family will pay a bride price for the woman. There will also be arrangements for an annulment penalty. Both of these financial sums are placed into the marital agreement, making them legally binding once the pair are wed.

Once discussions have been finalised, the two families might share a meal together but, otherwise, the event is rarely marked. Betrothals are not considered a grand ceremony or rite of passage. They are not often celebrated.

Despite not being a part of betrothal talks, a woman has the right to refuse any match prior to the talks taking place. A woman must be willing when she enters into a marriage. She has no power in negotiations, making these talks incredibly nerve-wracking if the wedding is one highly desired by the potential wife.

If an engagement is broken off before a wedding can take place, a compensatory sum is paid by the family who broke the agreement to the other party. If the engagement was broken by one side because of the behaviour of the other, negotiations of compensation ensue. This compensation is only not expected if one of the intended pairs has died.

For the financial rules of betrothals see the Financial Transactions header of the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.

Marrying Into a Different Class
As there is a strong belief in social mobility and little classism in Hattusa, marriage across class divides is not usually something to disapprove of. However, for the regal / courtier classes, marriages are contracts for familial growth and connection, more than they are love matches. A proposed bride or groom from a lower class family will not meet with disapproval simply because they are lower class. But they are likely to be disapproved of because lower class families do not usually possess the expected wealth, connections or benefits to bring into the union.

This disapproval can cause issues if it is the woman of the pair that is of higher class, as a woman’s guardian must approve all marital arrangements. A woman can avoid this lack of permission by requesting temporary emancipation (before she then becomes the ward of her future husband) but this comes with the risk of being permanently emancipated if the marriage does not go through, so it is rarely granted by Antuhsas (who would then shoulder the burden of her wardship permanently).

For more information on female emancipation, see the Gender Legalities header, in the Legal Doctrines section of Hattusa's Law page.

Men have the right to marry whomever they wish but marrying outside of their House’s leaders favour may cause issues further down the line. A House leader cannot dictate whom their sons and nephews should marry but he can, for example, decide and rearrange their monthly finances and allowances. Or order that they are to move to one of the smaller estates in the family name etc. It is, therefore, generally good practice to seek marriage with those one's family will approve of, regardless of sex / gender. Getting Married
For the synopsis of legal marriage see the Legal Marriage header in The Hittite People section above. Below is information on the marital ceremony.

Marriages must be ordained by the local temples. Betrothal agreements are made between families and then presented to the High Priest of the local temple. Only then can the marriage licence be drawn up and a date chosen for the ceremony.

The Hittites believe in the omens of the stars and will often consult a priest specialising in astronomy to read the skies and choose an auspicious day for the union.

On the chosen day, sacrifices are made to the temple in which the couple wish to marry. The bride and groom are then separated for ritual bathing and the priesthood bestows and grants the state of marriage upon the couple by anointing them with holy oil. This oil is dotted to both palms, the chest and the forehead. The entire process is carried out for the wife and husband separately. Only when bathed and oiled are they then brought together, gowned in white cloth. Their hands are bound together with white scarves. They both agree before a priest to meet the criteria of their marital contract, as do representatives from each of their families. They are then pronounced husband and wife and the scarves can be removed. These matters are always conducted in the late afternoon so that the pronouncement is made just as the sun has set and the stars are shining. It is said to be a misfortune if the night sky is cloudy and the stars are not there to greet the new couple when they emerge from the temple.

For royal weddings, the practice is much lengthier, with the holy bathing and oil anointing carried out at up to seven major temples throughout the capital - one per day. Only after a week of these practices can the couple be brought together for the final confirmation.

After the ceremony, feasts and festivities are expected, usually hosted by the husband's family. Whilst there is no rule on when a married couple should consummate their marriage, it is considered bad luck if they do not retire to do exactly that before the sun comes up.

For large and royal weddings, these festivities are usually city wide, and the Antuhsa of the city or town will usually declare the following day to be one without work, allowing the populace to celebrate into the night without fear of an early morning start. Common belief dictates that the more people celebrating with the newly married couple, the happier their future lives will be. The husband's family will therefore usually send barrels of wine and roasted meats into the streets of the town or city, as thanks to its people for celebrating their union with them.

A marriage is not officially confirmed until it is consummated. Whilst consummation is done in private, a servant is usually expected to listen at doors, or peek through windows, in order to confirm it has taken place. They are then charged with returning to the temple where the couple were married and swearing witness to this fact, so that the marriage licence can be sealed.

There is no ring or outward symbol of marriage worn by either party in a union. The legal paperwork is the only physical sign of the marriage. Many couples, however, keep the scarves used in their marriage ceremony and may convert them into belts or decorative clothing that they can later wear on special occasions. They might also use them to decorate their home. Divorce and Annulment Annulments are only granted if one of a newly married couple changes their mind after the wedding ceremony but before the couple have consummated the union. Annulments are treated, on a practical level, like broken engagements and, when the families are satisfied with the compensatory sums / process, the temples erase the evidence of the couple’s marriage from all records. Both man and woman are considered to have never been married in the first place.

If a couple has already consummated their marriage, only a divorce is possible, should they wish to separate. Divorces are decided by a couple’s local temple (usually the one they were married at). Both men and women can go to a temple, with a request for a divorce. There, they state their case and, if the priest finds in their favour, a divorce is granted. Both spouses must be given the chance to speak with the priest before their decision is made.

A woman can request a divorce for any of the following reasons:
Neglect of Care
If a husband is mismanaging his household (for example, running the finances into the ground) resulting in a lack of reasonable living (food, clothing, mild comfort) for his wife, he is in breach of his promise to care for her as her legal guardian. His wife can, therefore, go to the temple with a divorce request.
Any form of physical harm between spouses is grounds for a divorce request. A woman citing abuse as the reason for divorce is often slightly more likely to be granted one than a man giving the same reason. Citations if abuse are also investigated for criminal reparation / punishment, not just civil divorce proceedings.
There are several scenarios in which extra marital sex is not considered to be infidelity. In circumstances outside of these, extra marital intercourse is considered adultery and is grounds for a divorce request.

For information on adultery and acceptable sexual behaviour outside of marriage see the Fidelity and Monogamy header in the Sexual Behaviour section below.

The Hittites believe that barren women are the only reason for lack of children, if their husband is physically able to have intercourse successfully (I.e. including ejaculation). Other scenarios in which men are injured, castrated or are otherwise impotent can be cited as grounds for a divorce request from women. Whilst it is less likely to be granted, it is also possible for women to request a divorce based on their own barrenous. If they believe, and can offer evidence that their current marriage or husband must have angered Hannahanna, resulting in the wife’s barren state, they can then make the argument that a divorce would please Hannahanna and their ability to procreate would return.
Breach of Contract
In Hattusa, marriage is a financial contract as much as it is a religious and emotional union. Each marriage contract is unique, based on the negotiations made between the families at the betrothal stage (see above). If the husband’s family fails to keep to the agreement, a divorce can be requested. Depending on the enormity of the issue, criminal action can also be taken against the husband and his family.

A man can request a divorce for any of the following reasons:
Any form of physical harm between spouses is grounds for a divorce request. A woman citing abuse as the reason for divorce is often slightly more likely to be granted one than a man giving the same reason. Citations if abuse are also investigated for criminal reparation / punishment, not just civil divorce proceedings.
There are several scenarios in which extra marital sex is not considered to be infidelity. In circumstances outside of these, extra marital intercourse is considered adultery and is grounds for a divorce request.

For information on adultery and acceptable sexual behaviour outside of marriage see the Fidelity and Monogamy header in the Sexual Behaviour section below.

The Hittites believe that barren women are the only reason for lack of children, if their husband is physically able to have intercourse successfully (I.e. including ejaculation). If this is the case, men are permitted to request a divorce from the local temples.
Breach of Contract
In Hattusa, marriage is a financial contract as much as it is a religious and emotional union. Each marriage contract is unique, based on the negotiations made between the families at the betrothal stage (see above). If the wife’s family fails to keep to the agreement, a divorce can be requested. Depending on the enormity of the issue, criminal action can also be taken against the wife and her family.
If a man has substantial evidence that their wife has birthed a child that is not theirs, they can claim a divorce on the grounds of infidelity (see above) but also seek financial compensation for the cost he has spent thus far in raising the child.
Lunacy and Hysteria
This is a grey and difficult to prove reason for a divorce but it is very real and cited in requests for divorce. In short, it encapsulates a woman failing to behave normally and create a comfortable household for the husband and their family. If a woman becomes hysterical, violent, or simply verbally abusive, lunacy might be claimed. Some men also try to cite lunacy if their wife fails in domestic chores (though this is not usually an accepted justification). Lunacy can also be cited if a wife is refusing to sleep with her husband. Again, this is rarely a justifying reason for a divorce on its own, for women are always permitted choice and consent under Hittite law. But, I’m a case where many of these incidents are occurring, in conjunction with low-key examples of infidelity (such as flirting but not sleeping with other men) might cumulatively convince a priest that a woman is being a bad enough wife to issue the husband with a right to a divorce.

For the financial compensations and rules of ending a marriage see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.
Old Age The Hittites believe in the caring of others. As a child grows, their parents care for them. Once they are of age and their parents begin to decline in strength, the caretaking is reversed. Due to a reasonably hospitable climate and healthy diet, most Hittites live into their sixties and beyond. Death in one's sixties would not be considered shocking but unfortunate. Living into one's seventies is considered very good and eighties near unheard of. Beyond this, Hittites are as susceptible as anyone else to illness or death on the battlefield.

Elders are generally held in high esteem in Hattusa as they are believed to hold greater experiences and life-wisdom than the young. Advice from older generations is greatly respected and should be adhered to. Death and Burials After death, the body is seen as a marker or means of remembrance of the deceased. It is therefore treated with respect and passed on to its next state or purpose with ceremony: be that ceremony entombment or cremation.

For the lower classes, it is traditional for the body to be burned, the ashes collected into a sealed decorative or sentimental vessel and that container be kept in the family home. Customarily the container is kept on a high shelf, alongside other ancestors in the family, where they can witness the daily lives of their kin.

For the wealthier classes, bodies are kept whole and entombed in memorial buildings. These structures are often decorated with carvings and paintings on the walls, depicting the life of the deceased including who they were, their greatest achievements and the descendents they leave behind them. Family members are often buried in the same structure but not the same rooms; they are each given a chamber. On occasion, couples who were famously in love with each other will be entombed in the same room, particularly if they died together. For the highest of royals, such as past monarchs, queens and Tawanannas, entire structural estates are built for their afterlife residence, with their own temples and separate buildings for caretakers. All to house just one body.

Whether the body is entombed or cremated it is traditional, during the ceremony, to wear the finest garments and cook all of the meat within a household, requiring a fresh start to food stores. If the family who have lost their loved one cannot consume all of the meat cooked it is given away to the needy or to neighbours. Because of their favour with the spinners, pomegranates are often consumed.

The Hittites do not believe in a physical afterlife 'place'. Nor do they believe in punishment vs. reward after you have passed on, in the form of paradise or hell. Instead, they simply believe the person to have died and gone on to their next state of existence; whatever that may be. They, as mortals, are not to know what the Gods think, where they exist, or whether the dead join them after passing. Some believe that they can feel their ancestors watching over them in a more spiritual, one-with-the-earth kind of way, but never in the form of corporeal ghosts and a real afterlife existence. Practices and Customs Social customs fall under two categories: those that are believed to be true / necessary, for a happy life and to avoid disfavour with the Gods. And those that are habit and tradition but not taken seriously: I.e. superstitions. Below is the list of social customs believed to be true and important.

For superstitions and practices that are taken less literally, see the Superstitions and Omens section in Hattusa's Faith page.

01.If blackbirds, crows or any other black birds swarm in a particular area it is a sign of nearby disease.
02.Older antiques show the two spinners with their third, missing sister. Either with three figures side by side or back to back, or as a single figure with three faces. These are now thought to bear bad luck unless the third face is somehow covered. An even worse fate awaits those who throw the statue away or destroy it.
03.If someone’s life is suddenly difficult with frequent obstacles they might be ‘cursed by Teshub’ for their immoral or unjust behaviour.
04.Animals born with missing limbs are said to be a sign of Arinna’s displeasure, as she prizes physical beauty and symmetry.
05.The more people who celebrate a wedding, the happier the new couple will be in their future lives together.
06.If a newly married couple exit the temple after their vows have been made, and the stars above are clouded over, it is a warning of poor luck in their union.

Please NoteThis section of our Encyclopaedia is underdeveloped. If you have some ideas for social customs and beliefs the Hittite characters might hold to, please contact a member of our Staff Team so that we can add your creations to this list.
Annual Festivals Faith, ritual and tradition are just as important in Hattusa as planning a progressive future. This probably stems from the diversity of peoples who have lived on the Anatolia peninsula before the empire stood here. There are hundreds of annual festivals from all over the empire, specific to regions and provinces but this is the main list of empire-wide festivals that your character could participate in at any time, should you create a thread in the appropriate month.

PurulliyašAnnaFestival of the Earth
A festival praying for a fertile spring for the empire's livestock.
PracticesHadaúri - the ceremonial sacrifice of a sheep.
HeuwašEannaRain Festival
A ceremonial dance and prayer for fresh spring water for the seeded, annual crop.
HamešhantašHameshaFestival of Growth
Celebrated after the birth of the annual livestock in thanks to the Gods.
TethešnašMeuanThunder Festival
A festival that celebrates the great paternal god Teshub.
AntahšumAmeuFestival of Plants
A festival dedicated to the new growth of the recent spring and the start of the harvest. Decorations are made of colchicum, saffron and lily.
PracticesHarši hešuwaš - the ceremonial opening of the pithos of barley sealed at the last Zenandaš festival. These grains are later used for replanting for the following winter.
HaššumašEusankFestival of Animals
An event to celebrate the animals of the empire and the Gods Hannahanna and Rundas. Participants are encouraged to wear animal masks. The event is very popular with children.
ŚukindúEusankdanFestival of the Sickle
Celebrated at the end of harvest time to give thanks for the completed crop.
Practices Ezengurun - all attending children are given free fresh fruit by the leaders of their area.
TuhšuwašEusankdanFestival of the Grape
The Śukindú is celebrated during the day - the same night is Tuhšuwaš, in which adults celebrate the harvest of the grapes by getting excessively drunk. It is actually an insult to the Gods to remain sober during Tuhšuwaš.
ZenandašZenahaFall Festival
A festival for the changing seasons into autumn.
PracticesHarši šuhhuwaš - the ceremonial pithos are filled with barley grains from that year’s harvest and sealed away until the following Antahšum.
NuntarriyašhašAnnanuTour Festival
The Tabarna or Crown Prince travels the cities of the empire to collect the annual tax information from across the nation. This is an exciting chance for the population to witness the royal family.
HalkilamAnnanuMarket Festival
The Nuntarriyašhaš takes several weeks to complete. At the end of this tour, all Houses arrive in the capital to offer samples of the crops of their lands as a ceremonial tribute to the royal family and its leadership.
Social Classes
Method of Rule INSERT FROM LAW PAGE Power Hierarchy Social classes and ranks hold different levels of power in different spheres: politically, militarily and socially. You can find a more detailed version of these rankings in Hattusa's Law page but, for ease, here is a simplified version of different ranks, their level in the social hierarchy and their spheres of influence.

Council of MinistersGal MeshediCrown Prince
Immediate Royal Family
Royal Concubines
AntuhsaDeputy HuiyatallaExtended Royals
Common Peerage

For more information on each rank and their abilities, see the Ranks and Hierarchy section of Hattusa’s Law page.

For a list of characters and their ranks / classes within Hattusa, see the Land Census section in Hattusa's Outline page.

For information on what the Hittites call themselves and the people and places across our world, see our Language and Communication section in Hattusa’s Science page.

For title comparisons with other lands and their formal addresses, see our Lands Overview page.

For more information on the laws of slavery, see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.
Morals and Prejudices
Nationalism Unless Hattusa is actively at war with another land, the Hittites hold very little discrimination towards those foreigners. Even when in conflict with another land or empire, they can differentiate: refusing the company and friendship of a combatant is not the same as disrespecting them simply for being different. Within Hattusa, however, nationalist ideas are important. If a Hittite is a traitor to his own nation, this is a grievous offence. Treason is the height of criminal behaviour in Hattusa. Classism The class divides in Hattusa are very distinctive but they are not barriers. Social mobility is a very real potential in Hattusa, which makes an individual's birth hardly a representation of their worth. This ability to better oneself and one's birth, however, leads to a certain arrogance in the upper classes. If a man, for example, has reached middle age and has still not attained a higher standard than a peasant, he might be met with some judgement over his skills, efforts or lack of ambition. In general, however, progressive laws and detailed human rights within Hattusa ensure that no class is met with overt discrimination. Sex Discrimination Women are legally the responsibility, but not the possession, of a male relative. Usually their father and then their husband. It is the legal duty of their father and husband to protect them, support them and provide them with a happy life, so that future generations may flourish under happy wives and mothers. A woman has several legal rights of her own, but usually requires a male relative of some sort to be her benefactor and guardian.

For more information on the patriarchal laws of Hattusa, see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.
Sexuality Discrimination Hattusa law is progressive in many ways but discrimination against same-sex relationships and romance is one area in which it falls short. Same-sex marriage is illegal in Hattusa, as is a woman with more than one husband. In terms of non-hetero relationships in general, the behaviour is seen as lewd and a little odd. Mocking or discussing sexual conduct with strangers is considered rude in Hattusa, so highlighting another's proclivities by discriminating against them is equally rude. Therefore, those rumoured to enjoy the romantic company of members of their own sex are likely to face a certain amount of social castigation, though it will be masked with polite falseness and never addressed directly. Such matters can be open and accepted secrets and only start to impact the behaviour of others when it comes to talks of marriage or royal inheritance. Racism Racism does not exist in Hattusa. It is too diverse a nation with various ethnicities from all over the empire and known lands. Whilst the African ethnicity is uncommon in Hattusa, and will probably spark several stares simply for its rarity, there is no social belief that one ethnicity is somehow inferior to another. Religious Discrimination Like anyone, the Hittites believe that their faith is the true one. Their religion is a statement of fact, rather than a spiritual metaphor or guide. For them, the Gods do exist and to deny them is nonsense. That being said, they are not missionary in their faith. Their own religion does not negate the faith of others. Were a Hellenes, for example, to discuss his Gods to a Hittite, they might actively discuss which ones are probably the same God under a different name, or which are separate. The Hittite might even accept that the Hellenes deities exist: they are simply not the ones the Hittites worship. In this sense, the Hittites are very religiously open-minded. If there is any discrimination at all, it is towards atheists. Those who claim that the Gods do not exist at all are viewed as insane and likely to be struck down in some manner by the Hittite pantheon. They are social outcasts and studiously avoided, so that their misfortune and / or insanity cannot spread to others.

For more information on the Hittite religion, see the Religions section in Hattusa’s Faith page.
Linguistic Discrimination As they are already a nation of multiple languages, the Hittites hold no discrimination to those who don't speak their own tongues. There is perhaps a slight level of arrogant judgement on those who are illiterate but, otherwise, language is barely a concern let alone a means of prejudice. Neurological Discrimination Unlike other lands, who might see the loss of faculty or mental difficulties as a curse or disease, the people of Hattusa consider several neurological diseases to be signs of the divine. In the Hittite faith, the two Fate Spinners are each blind and mute. The loss of a sense is therefore seen as a message or guide from the Gods: the removal of one sense might mean that an individual has more to learn and discover with their others. Neurological issues such as epilepsy, hallucinations or vivid dreams are equally connected to concepts of 'oracles' and 'speakers'.

For more information on this subject see the Witchcraft and Prophecy section in Hattusa's Faith page.

Despite advanced medicine compared to other lands, the Hittites do not believe in the concept of depression or anxiety. The fatigue and nervous temperaments that these conditions can cause are read as laziness and cowardice. Non-Able Bodied Discrimination Though neurological disabilities are viewed in a positive light, physical difficulties are considered to be curses. Particularly from Alinna who, above all else, admires symmetry and beauty. A child or animal born with a physical disability may suffer social shunning, prejudiced opinions on their own worth and abilities, or even abandonment by the parents in order to ensure Alinna's wrath stays away from the rest of the family. On the flipside, parents of children with physical anomalies / difficulties can also be incredibly loving, turning to temples for prayer and support and working to appease the Gods so that their child might later grow to be "normal".

Being non-able bodied due to a later incurred injury or accident is not seen in the same light. A man who has lost a limb to war, for example, will be seen as heroic, having even sacrificed a piece of his own body for the glory of the nation. Some might even say that the loss of limb was Teshub or Zababa's way of telling the soldier he had given enough and that his path in life now lies outside of the military. If an injury or physical difficulty is caused due to an accident or one's own foolishness, reactions are fairly varied and typical: from sympathy, to judgement, to rolled eyes.
Social Behaviour
Alcohol and Drinking As drinking water is only available from rain, wells and natural springs, it is usually expensive to ship and purchase. Wine and goat's milk are more common beverages. It is not uncommon, therefore, to drink copious amounts of wine in Hattusa without it being considered substance abuse. Children will drink wine at times but are also encouraged to drink milk instead, as it’s widely believed to be healthier for their growth.

A man or woman who becomes overtly inebriated is rarely judged; they are simply encouraged to go to bed and sleep it off. A man or woman who seems to be permanently intoxicated may be judged on their apparent lack of self-control or sensibility. There is no concept of alcoholism or addiction in Hattusa; a drunkard is a drunkard by choice and if that choice is having a negative impact on their life, this reflects as stupidity. Drugs and Opiates Opiates and other drugs are frequently used by Hittite people, depending on their affordability. Using psychedelic or mind-altering substances is considered perfectly acceptable and an enjoyable activity like any other. There is no concept of the long-lasting effects of using such substances.

Like with alcohol, there is no understanding of addiction to drugs in Hattusa. A man or woman unable to resist using these kinds of substances, to the detriment of their self-respect or the practicalities of their lives, is likely to be considered a fool.

For a list of opiates and recreational drugs, see our complete Flora and Fauna database and look for the ingredients marked as ‘Opiates’ that originate in ‘Hattusa’.
Social Quirks Outside of religious traditions and superstitions are the rules humans create for themselves, simply through social interaction: in other words... what is and is not considered polite. Here is our list of social quirks and mores that we've developed in our roleplaying so far...

01.As food is consumed, in Hattusa, with one's hands from shared plates, it is generally considered impolite to make a point of dirty hands. If someone's hands are unclean, they should be held behind their back. And behaviour that will obviously dirty one's hands is rude to conduct in public. For example, scratching the inside of one's nostrils, the underarms or the groin, is considered particularly disgusting. It's understood to be a habit of everyone in private quarters, but to scratch thusly in front of others is equal to flaunting a lack of care for the cleanliness of any food you might one day share together.

For social quirks that are based in superstition, not custom, see the Superstitions and Omens section in Hattusa's Faith page.

Please NoteThis section of our Encyclopaedia is underdeveloped. If you have some ideas for social quirks and practices that Hittite characters might abide by, please contact a member of our Staff Team so that we can add your theories to this list.
Sexual Behaviour
Ages of Consent All Sexes The Hittite age of consent is fourteen for both sexes.

Please NoteOn Aeipathy, sexual contact involving any characters under the age of fifteen cannot be written on our boards. Any reference to these events happening outside of roleplay is allowed but should be labelled appropriately for trigger-avoidance.
Chastity vs. Promiscuity The Hittites are fairly open about sexual conduct. Sex is considered a healthy, natural instinct alongside eating and exercise; neither dirty nor taboo. Women and men are both understood to have physical, sexual desires. Sexual activity is still personal though and not often discussed amongst strangers.

Similar to other lands, men are not truly considered men until they have bedded a woman but they are unlikely to be judged for any chastity until they approach their mid-twenties. Women are not expected to be virtuous either and marriage is not conditional on a virgin bride. A woman is expected to remain chaste, however, between her last 'courses' before a wedding and the wedding night, thereby ensuring that any future children are sired by her husband. There are no expectations on a woman to have sex in order to be considered an adult, as there is with men, and they are rarely chastised for being virgins until their marriage, whenever that may be. In fact, they might be considered to have impressive self-discipline for doing so. Nudity In Hattusa, nudity is not seen as a 'big deal' but only in the right circumstances. Most forms of dress (particularly in the upper classes) involve a man's naked chest. Most dresses for women are slit to the thigh for ease of movement. Plunging necklines, naked arms and bare midriffs are all normal for Hittite fashion. The land has a warm climate and clothing has to be comfortable as well as stylish.

To add to this, many Hittites apply oils and milks to their skin after bathing to protect it from the dry and dusty air. Those of the nobility will usually have servants and slaves do this. Their complete nudity in front of these people, therefore, is commonplace.

Aside from the normal expectations of fashion or circumstances where being naked is a necessity (such as the oils example above), nudity is generally considered in the same light as modern-day western culture: something to be explored in private rather than public. To become accidentally nude in public would be an event of great shame and embarrassment. This is particularly true of married women or concubines, whose bodies are considered the private aesthetic of their husbands / lovers. Sexual Assault Sexual assault is considered very real in Hattusa. The Hittites believe in equal value for men and women with an emphasis on a man's duty to care for the females of his family. A woman has a right to refuse sexual contact with any man, including her husband, and any attempts to force a change of her mind are illegal and punishable by the temples and the law. Sexual assault upon men is equally illegal but comes with additional social complications and is therefore classified simply as 'assault'.

For more information on the punishments for crimes (including sexual assault) see the Legal Doctrines section in Hattusa's Law page.
Incest Sex and marriage between full-blooded siblings or a parent and child is considered wrong and is illegal. Sex and marriage between half-siblings is not technically illegal but socially is way too close for comfort and, whilst not punishable, will result in serious scandal. In the lower classes, sex and marriage between first cousins is generally encouraged to help build stronger familial connections and economic industry. In the higher classes, sex and marriage is used as a tool of diplomacy and negotiation to bring together lands from afar or new blood into the family. Relationships between first cousins, therefore, are normal but often met with the question of whether the partners couldn't find someone elsewhere; as if they have had to settle for a close relative because no-one else will accept them. Sexual relations and marriages between any other, extended family members is considered perfectly normal whether they are technically connected by blood or by marriage. Fidelity and Monogamy Fidelity in Hattusa is not based on physical exclusivity but personal respect. There are several circumstances in which a man or woman would not be expected to remain sexually monogamous with their marital partner. But, equally, there are situations in which sexual congress with others would be considered as infidelity.

Men of the immediate royal line (i.e. the Tabarna and his immediate sons or grandsons) have the right to any woman in the land, married or not. In this sense, it is impossible for a royal male to 'cheat' on his wife. For all women are open to them by law. Sleeping with royalty does not automatically make a woman their concubine. If a royal male claims a married woman for his bed, it is not considered infidelity against her husband. If she becomes pregnant via this congress, however, her marriage is immediately annulled and she is moved into the seraglio of her royal lover as their concubine. The royal in question is required, by law, to pay a hefty compensation to the husband. This is also the case for unmarried women, the compensation paid to her father.
Polygamy / Concubines
Formal concubines are a given for members of the nobility. Lower class men wealthy enough to afford the keep of more than one woman are also legally permitted to take second wives. A woman is referred to as a 'concubine' to distinguish them from the legitimate wife if she is the lover of a royal or a nobleman. For the lower classes, the two wives are of equal standing. Deference is usually made to the woman who married the husband first but this is a social norm not a legal one. Sleeping with your second wife, or a concubine, is a natural and normal part of married life. It is not considered infidelity in any way.
Whilst men may take more than one wife, women are not legally permitted to take more than one husband. Though uncommon, it is possible for wives to enjoy sex together, provided it is part of an act with their shared husband. This would not be considered infidelity.

See the Sexuality Discrimination section under Prejudices below for further information on same-sex sexualities.

Men at War
Hattusa is a grand, advancing empire, which includes and requires war campaigns. These campaigns can last anything between a few months to a decade. Women are not permitted in the armed forces. However, long campaign caravans include civilians, for things like organising supplies, tending to horses, fixing tents, mending weaponry, accounting etc. These civilian numbers can include women. If their spouses' occupation meets requirements, some soldiers will take their wives to war with them. In this scenario, it is usually expected that the couple remain monogamous. For those, however, who leave their spouses at home, sexual fidelity is considered impractical and silly to enforce. (See the Chastity vs. Promiscuity section above for the Hittite opinion on sex as a natural appetite). Paying for sex in brothels and from professionals, therefore, is a common and perfectly acceptable practice for men away at war. Whilst their women may or may not have differing personal opinions on the subject, a wife who complains about her husband using the sex industry when at war would be considered irrational and unfair.
Brothels and Sex Workers
There are several ways in which the use of brothels and prostitutes is not considered an act of infidelity (by either partner). However, these circumstances are particular and always come with the caveat of communication and respect. Any use of the sex industry, regardless of the reason, committed under the guise of deceit or with disrespect for the spouse, would likely be seen as infidelity.

For men, the use of prostitutes is not an uncommon practice. It is seen almost as a right of passage for young, unmarried men and, for married men, it is reasonably common for multiple reasons. If a man has married a woman for connection over sexual attraction, for example, he might use brothel girls regularly without raising any eyebrows. A man using a prostitute whilst his wife is suffering her 'courses' is another justifiable reason. During pregnancy is another. Hattusa is progressive for the ancient world in that a woman has the right to refuse her husband sexually for whatever reason she wishes and any attempts to force her otherwise is considered rape and highly illegal. The flip side of this is that it is equally acceptable for a man to quench his desires with a professional if it cannot be done at home.

For women, the use of brothels and professional prostitutes is generally frowned upon. But this has less to do with the physical act than the areas in which brothels are usually found and safety concerns of using such places. For example, if a man is injured and unable to perform sexually for his wife, he is likely to dislike the idea of her venturing to a seedy part of the city to a brothel full of sexual men. He's likely to be more understanding of her forming an arrangement with a male acquaintance. As it is a mark of manhood to be able to satisfy a woman in bed and there are fewer reasons for a man to be physically incapable of sex for a time, it is more respectful for women to keep out-of-marriage liaisons hidden and private. A brothel does not allow for this. There are therefore very few brothels that offer male companionship for female patrons.
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